Rush Hour / Feierabendverkehr in Passau

Rush Hour / Feierabendverkehr in Passau

www.facebook.com/paintingwithlightbyschauer
Quelle:
de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verkehrszeiten
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rush_hour

Aus den tageszeitlichen Schwankungen der Verkehrsnachfrage lassen sich im Allgemeinen drei Kategorien der Verkehrszeiten ableiten: Die Hauptverkehrszeit (HVZ), die Normalverkehrszeit bzw. Nebenverkehrszeit (NVZ) und die Schwachverkehrszeit (SVZ), abends auch Spätverkehrszeit genannt.
In der Hauptverkehrszeit (HVZ), umgangssprachlich auch als Spitzenverkehrszeit, Spitzenzeit, Stoßzeit oder Rush Hour bezeichnet, dominieren vor allem die Fahrtzwecke Arbeit (Berufsverkehr) und Schule (Schülerverkehr). Im unmittelbaren Umkreis von Schulen und Kindergärten entsteht durch die Beförderung der Kinder zu Unterrichtsbeginn und das Abholen zum Unterrichtsende häufig die spezielle Variety der Schul-Rushhour. Das Verkehrsaufkommen ist in der Hauptverkehrszeit besonders stark, und es kommt oft zu Staus. Die Nachfrage gerade zur morgendlichen Hauptverkehrszeit ist als unelastisch zu betrachten, da Arbeits- und Schulbeginn meist festliegen. Die mittägliche Hauptverkehrszeit wird vom Schülerverkehr dominiert und betrifft hauptsächlich den öffentlichen Personennahverkehr (ÖPNV). Die Spitze fällt meistens gering aus, daher wird dieser Zeitraum nicht überall als Hauptverkehrszeit ausgewiesen. In der abendlichen Hauptverkehrszeit fällt die Verkehrsspitze in der Regel niedriger aus als morgens, da hier eine größere Verteilung besteht. Die Hauptverkehrszeit geht üblicherweise von six bis nine Uhr und von 16 bis 19 Uhr. Im ländlichen Raum können sich Beginn und Ende um bis zu einer Stunde verlagern, da meist die Fahrtzeiten für die Pendler zwischen Land und Ballungsgebieten größer sind.

In der Hauptverkehrszeit bestehen im öffentlichen Personennahverkehr oft andere Takte (Fahrtenfolgen) oder Fahrzeiten, zuweilen wird auch fahrplanlos mit maximaler Fahrzeugfolge gefahren (so zum Beispiel in Paris und New York). Im Individualverkehr können in der Hauptverkehrszeit spezielle Ampelschaltungen, Tempolimits, Fahrstreifenaufteilungen und Einbahnstraßenregelungen gelten (so zum Beispiel in Hamburg die Sierichstraße: Sie ist jeweils Einbahnstraße in Lastrichtung, four bis twelve Uhr stadteinwärts, twelve bis four Uhr stadtauswärts).

In Ballungsräumen wird eine Ausdehnung der Hauptverkehrszeit beobachtet über den Morgen oder in den Abend, da die Verkehrsteilnehmer versuchen, dem täglichen Verkehrsstau zu entgehen. Auch machen sich die längeren Ladenöffnungszeiten bemerkbar.

Im Telekommunikationsbereich umfasst die Hauptverkehrszeit nach ITU-T-Empfehlung etwa vier Stunden am Tag ohne genauere Festlegung. Für Deutschland liegt sie werktags von 09:30 Uhr bis 11:30 Uhr, und umfasst somit eine Zeitdauer von zwei Stunden.
Die Nebenverkehrszeit (NVZ) stellt die Verkehrszeit mit mittlerem bzw. normalem Verkehrsaufkommen bzw. Fahrgastaufkommen und entsprechenden Takten bzw. Fahrzeugeinsätzen im öffentlichen Personennahverkehr dar. Die Verkehrsnachfrage ist hier also geringer als zur Hauptverkehrszeit. Es dominieren der Lieferverkehr zusammen mit den Fahrtzwecken Besorgungen, Erledigungen und Einkauf. Die Nebenverkehrszeit beginnt in Ballungsgebieten wochentags um etwa nine Uhr und endet gegen 16 Uhr, wobei dies in den meisten Fällen auch für den Samstag gilt. In Räumen mit ausgeprägtem Schülerverkehr wird die Nebenverkehrszeit zur mittäglichen Schülerheimfahrt unterbrochen.

Mitunter wird die NVZ auch als Normalverkehrszeit bezeichnet.
Die Verkehrsnachfrage in der Schwachverkehrszeit (SVZ) ist gering. Die Fahrtzwecke Freizeit, Erholung und Wohnen überwiegen. Die Schwachverkehrszeit beginnt an Wochentagen in der Regel nach 20 Uhr (durch die Verlängerung der Ladenöffnungszeiten oft erst nach 21 Uhr) und dauert bis zur morgendlichen Hauptverkehrszeit, sonnabends gilt sie außerhalb der Nebenverkehrszeit und an Sonn- und Feiertagen ganztägig. In Großstädten mit größeren Entfernungen und viel Touristenanteil wird sonn- und feiertags im öffentlichen Personennahverkehr während der Zeit von mittags bis abends wie zur Nebenverkehrszeit gefahren.

Innerhalb der Schwachverkehrszeit wird zwischen Früh- und Spätverkehr unterschieden. Ein Frühverkehr wird besonders an Sonn- und Feiertagen bis zum Beginn des normalen Tagesverkehrs angeboten. Ein besonderer Spätverkehr berücksichtigt die veränderte Verkehrsnachfrage am späten Abend (Kulturstandorte, Diskotheken etcetera.). In kleineren Städten in Deutschland wird im Gegensatz zu solchen Städten in der Schweiz der reguläre Stadtbusverkehr an Sonntagen oft erst um die Mittagszeit aufgenommen, morgens fahren Anruf-Sammel-Taxen (AST).

Mitunter wird die SVZ auch nur als Spätverkehrszeit bezeichnet.
A hurry hour or peak hour is a section of the day through which site visitors congestion on streets and crowding on public transport is at its maximum. Generally, this happens two times just about every weekday—once in the early morning and when in the evening, the moments through when the most persons commute. The time period is often utilized for a period of time of peak congestion that could very last for far more than a single hour.

The time period is really wide, but often refers exclusively to personal vehicle transportation site visitors, even when there is a massive quantity of cars on a street but not a massive selection of persons, or if the quantity is ordinary but there is some disruption of speed. By analogy to vehicular site visitors, the time period World wide web hurry hour has been utilized to describe intervals of peak data community use, resulting in delays and slower supply of data packets.
The identify is often a misnomer, as the peak period of time often lasts far more than a single hour and the “hurry” refers to quantity of site visitors, not charge of its circulation. Normally, hurry hour is 6–10am (06:00–(ten:00) and 4–8 pm (16:00–20:00). Some locations could experience another, less frantic, lunchtime hurry hour from midday to two pm (fourteen:00). Peak site visitors intervals could change from city to city, from area to area, and seasonally.

The frequency of public transport services is normally greater in the hurry hour, and for a longer time trains, or larger sized automobiles are often utilized. Nevertheless, the boost in ability is often less than the amplified selection of travellers, owing to the boundaries on readily available automobiles, employees and, in the situation of rail transport, monitor ability which includes platform length. The resulting crowding could force many travellers to stand, and many others could be not able to board. If there is insufficient ability, this can make public transport less appealing, major to greater automobile use and partly shifting the congestion to streets.

Transportation desire administration, this sort of as street pricing or a congestion charge, is designed to induce persons to alter their vacation timing to decrease congestion. Equally, public transport fares could be greater through peak intervals this is often presented as an off peak lower price for one fares. Year tickets or multi-ride tickets, marketed at a lower price, are normally utilized in hurry hrs by commuters, and could or could not mirror hurry hour fare differentials.

Staggered hrs have been promoted as a indicates of spreading desire throughout a for a longer time time span, for instance in Rush Hour (1941 movie) and by the International Labour Business office.[
In Australia, Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne and in New Zealand, Auckland and Christchurch are normally the most congested cities in the early morning 6–9am, and four:30–7pm. In Melbourne the Monash Freeway, which connects Melbourne’s suburban sprawl, to the city is normally heavily congested just about every early morning and evening. In Perth, Thomas Street between Nicholson Street and Tonkin Highway is pretty much often congested owing to a massive total of roadworks on this stretch.

In Sydney, congestion is managed by many indicates which includes:

General public transport boost the total of automobiles on the community

Buses boost from four for each hour to twelve for each hour on the Metrobus community, other routes boost constrained and express products and services
The greatest rail community in Sydney is heavy rail and run double deckers electrical multiple unit trains that had been introduced in 1972 with the CityRail L, R & S sets, these have allowed many far more travellers to board the trains in contrast to the 1950s one degree ‘Red Rattlers’, and ‘Silver Ghosts’.
Time of day ticket price ranges permit educate commuters to board trains in advance of 6am or just after 7pm at a more cost-effective charge on one or day return tickets
T Techniques where by developed in Sydney through 2008–2010, these are devoted streets for buses, and link major work centres with the suburban sprawl
ClearWays project enables for damaged down trains on the CityRail community to not impact the functioning of trains on separate traces owing to setting up bypasses, and loop backs together with the current monitor.
Site visitors congestion is managed by the Site visitors Management Centre by using a community of Closed Circuit TV’s, with operators able to transform the timing, and comply with of site visitors signals to cut down hold out moments

Most major motorways have the capacity for Contra-circulation to permit continuing circulation of site visitors in situation of a major accident
Transit Lanes are mounted on most major arterial streets, these lanes require a minimal total of persons in the automobile to be utilized, an instance is T2 require the driver, and one passenger to generate in the lane
Focused bus lanes, where by buses, taxi, and personal rental cars are only allowed to generate, this minimizes congestion with established down, and pick up of travellers, and ordinary commuters
More mature motor methods have been upgraded from two lanes in just about every way, to three lanes in just about every way
Motor way toll booths have been replaced with digital toll programs (Hills M2 was the very last to do so on 21 January 2012) time of day tolling is in use on the Sydney Harbour Bridge, and Sydney Harbour Tunnel to give hard cash incentives for commuters to remain out of the city in peak moments.
Brazil
In São Paulo, Brazil, just about every motor vehicle is assigned a specified day of the week in which it simply cannot vacation the streets through hurry hour (7–10am and 5–8pm). The day of the week for just about every motor vehicle is derived from the very last digit in the licence plate selection and the rule is enforced by site visitors law enforcement. This coverage is aimed at cutting down the selection of automobiles on the streets and encouraging the use of buses, subway and the urban educate programs.

Colombia
In the pico y placa (peak and license plate) software in Bogotá, motorists of non-business vehicles are prevented from driving them through hurry hrs on specified days of the week. The automobiles barred just about every day are established by the very last digit of their license plate. The evaluate is obligatory and those people who crack it are penalized. The digits banned just about every day are rotated just about every year.[two]

Greece
In the money city of Athens the hurry hrs are normally 7–10am and 4–7pm. During these intervals there is congestion in the Athens Mass Transit Process, most notably in buses and metro, as nicely as street site visitors. The six-automobile trains of Athens Metro carries pretty much one.5 million travellers through a standard week day.
In Japan, the proportion of rail transportation is superior in contrast with the use of vehicles. Rail transport accounts for 27% of all passenger transport in Japan (other illustrations: Germany (seven.seven%), United Kingdom (six.four%), United States (.six%)).[four] In the Increased Tokyo Place and the Keihanshin metropolitan area there is a dense rail community and frequent services, which accounts for far more than fifty percent of the passenger transport most persons in the area commute by public transport with no making use of cars.

Railways in the Increased Tokyo Place are seriously congested. This is slowly being enhanced by rising rail ability and increasing Household Liner and bi-degree Green automobile (First-class) products and services so that far more persons can commute in consolation with no more cost. But it is nevertheless common on major traces in Tokyo for far more than three,000 travellers to be packed in a ten-automobile educate, and about one hundred,000 travellers to be transported for each hour (normally, the greatest ability of double-monitor commuter rail in Japan is ten-automobile trains at two-minute intervals), presumably a single of the most congested railways in the environment.

In street transport, Expressways of Japan is operated by on a beneficiaries-pay back basic principle which imposes pricey toll charges, obtaining the impact of cutting down street site visitors. Electronic toll collection (And so forth) is popular and discounts through low-site visitors intervals has been introduced to disperse site visitors more than a broader period of time than the hurry hour. Street pricing is being considered but has not been introduced, partly because the expressway cost is by now really superior.
In London, Peak Day Travelcards permit vacation at all hrs. Off-peak Day Travelcards are 20-fifty% more cost-effective but are valid for vacation only just after nine:30am and on weekends. This is an attempt to encourage commuters’ vacation on the London Underground, Docklands Mild Railway, buses, and trams outside the house of the crowded weekday early morning peak. There is a comparable process on Transportation (Bus and Tyne and Use Metro) in the Newcastle on Tyne area. In London, congestion charges are meant to discourage driving 7am–6pm.

In Manchester, the Metrolink mild rail process offers one, return and ‘Metromax’ daysaver tickets at a minimized price when they are bought just after nine:30am. This incentive is designed to entice travellers into averting the each day crowded conditions at Metrolink stations through hurry hour.

For Young Persons Railcard holders, the provide of a single-3rd off ticket price ranges is valid only just after 10am (except if a minimal fare is compensated) or weekends. This restriction is lifted in July and August, the most important summer months holiday break period.[5]

For other Railcards, other limits implement for instance, the Household Railcard and Community Railcard simply cannot be utilized for peak journeys in London and south-east England.
Efforts to control transportation desire through hurry hour intervals change by point out and by metropolitan area. In some states, freeways have specified lanes that develop into HOV (Superior-Occupancy Auto aka automobile-pooling) only through hurry hrs, while open to all automobiles at other moments. In many others, this sort of as the Massachusetts portion of I-ninety three, vacation is permitted in the breakdown lane through this time. Many states, which includes Arizona, California, Ga, Illinois, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin use ramp meters to regulate site visitors entering freeways through hurry hour. Transportation officials in Colorado and Minnesota have included value pricing to some urban freeways all-around Denver, the Twin Cities, and Seattle, charging motorists a greater toll through peak intervals.

Transit companies – this sort of as Metro North serving New York Town, WMATA serving Washington DC, and BART serving San Francisco – often charge riders a greater fare (“peak fares”) for vacation through the early morning and evening hurry hour.

Early morning hurry hour moments can variety from 6–10am in cities like New York Town. Some New York commuters try out to be on the street by at minimum 6am because site visitors will get heavy between six:30 and nine:30am. Several educate commuters depart early to get the most effective seats on the trains, because by 7am the trains are packed with travellers standing or those people who can not get on. Los Angeles, California has many hurry hrs, which includes a midnight hurry for evening staff. Bus and educate services (this sort of as Metrolink) in Los Angeles are constrained and have a tendency to be underused, but their use is rising. In the Chicago area persons use Metra Trains, the ‘L’, and buses.

In Cleveland, Ohio or Northeast Ohio early morning hurry hour is 7–9am, with the peak seven:30–8:30am. Simply because of Cleveland’s compact measurement, most persons can be in Downtown Cleveland in 10–45 minutes. The Increased Cleveland Regional Transit Authority runs buses just about every fifty percent hour and some routes have non-halt freeway buses that run through hurry hour.
There is also an afternoon hurry hour. For instance, in the New York Town area, the afternoon hurry hour can begin as early as three p.m. and very last till seven p.m. Some persons who dwell in Connecticut but do the job in New York often do not arrive property till seven p.m. or later on. On the other hand, in a more compact city like Cleveland, the afternoon hurry hour will take area in a far more literal sense this sort of that heavy site visitors congestion ordinarily only takes place between 5 and six p.m. Commonly the RTA in Cleveland has an afternoon hurry hour routine like the early morning.

Site visitors heading into Philadelphia on Interstate ninety five through the early morning hurry hour.
The city of Philadelphia is acknowledged for its really unsafe Schuylkill Expressway, considerably of which predates the 1956 introduction of the Interstate Highway Process. A person of the busiest highways in the region (and point out of Pennsylvania) and with the street being really more than ability, it has develop into infamous for its serious congestion, specially through hurry hour. Rush hour in Philadelphia is normally as early as 6am, with many in the Delaware Valley making use of the Schuylkill to attain Central Philadelphia and some of Philadelphia’s western suburbs. The rugged terrain, constrained riverfront space protected by the route and narrow spans of bridges passing more than the freeway have mostly stymied later on attempts to improve or widen the freeway. An common 163,000 automobiles use the street each day in Philadelphia County, and an common of 109,000 use the freeway in Montgomery County. Its narrow lane and remaining shoulder configuration, remaining lane entrances and exits (nicknamed “merge or die”), common design action and typically congested conditions have led to many incidents, essential accidents and fatalities, major to the highway’s humorous nickname of the “Surekill Expressway” or in even further embellishment, “Surekill Distressway”.

Boston, Massachusetts, and the larger sized Increased Boston area, is infamous for site visitors congestion owing to the region’s superior inhabitants density, outmoded freeway process, and the superior focus of companies with massive offices found along major expressways and urban loops (which includes Route 128, MassPike, I-ninety three, I-495). In spite of the region’s compact nature, inbound site visitors becomes really heavy on all expressways as early as 6am on a standard weekday early morning, producing an inbound generate from the suburbs as very long as seventy five minutes. On the other hand, latest improvements brought about as section of the infamous Large Dig project have briefly enhanced expressway site visitors in Boston’s city boundaries.

Cities this sort of as Atlanta, Houston, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Washington DC, to identify a couple of, are acknowledged for obtaining some of the worst site visitors in the region. Los Angeles also has the maximum total of time expended in congestion, adopted by Honolulu and Washington D.C..

Posted by !!! Painting with Mild !!! #schauer on 2014-11-eighteen seventeen:54:fifty eight

Tagged: , Schauer , Christian , Oberdiendorf , Passau , Hauzenberg , Painting , with , Licht , Bayern , Bavaria , Germany , Europe , Canon , Tamron , Nikon , Lightroom , Photoshop , Character , Landscape , Developing , Nacht , Night time , Nuit , Noir , ISO , Lengthy , Milf , No , Non , Superior , Highlight , Minimal , Higher , Welt , Wold , HDR , Mild , Custom , United states of america , The us , England , November , Individuals , Menschen , Leute , Taking pictures , Autumn , Herbst , Zeit , Time , Rush , Hour , Site visitors , Transportation , Avenue , Strasse , Lampe , Auto , Auto , Auto , just after , do the job

Related posts:

You must be logged in to post a comment.